+ BACKGROUND, CHALLENGES AND OBJECTIVES
The Indonesian national medium-term development plan (RPJMN) 2015-2019 goal is to increase urban public transport users to 32% by 2019.
Although it has been roughly 40 years since the concept of the Jakarta MRT was first raised, around 20 years since the first feasibility study was conducted in the 1990s, and about 15 years since Japan offered support to construct the Jakarta MRT during the recovery phase from the Asian Financial Crisis, only recently the project has taken off. After years of underinvestment in Jakarta’s infrastructure, traffic congestion had caused complete deadlocks on streets of several parts of Jakarta on working days. However, when Joko Widodo became Governor of Jakarta in 2012, assisted by Deputy Governor Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, the pair were eager to make a difference and pushed for realization of the long overdue Jakarta MTR project.
One notorious obstacle to infrastructure projects in Indonesia is land acquisition. Although most of the land that is necessary for the construction of the Jakarta MTR has been acquired, there remain some land acquisition issues, primarily in the southern section of the project which is constructed above ground level. This may cause a delay in completion of the project. For the underground sections, 6.05-meter inner diameter tunnels need to be created removing an estimated 5 million cubic meters of material from the construction area. Part of this material will be used for infrastructure and property development in North Jakarta. The capacity of local government to build and operate LRT development project is very important, because the project has not been yet included in the cities development mission.
This will a) reduce usage of private vehicles that lead to emission reduction and support prevention of global warming, b) trigger new growth of economic activity centers around MRT stations, and c) provide accessible public transport for all.
+ ACTIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION
The government of Jakarta, Indonesia, commenced construction of its first mass rapid rail transport system in October 2013. The new commuter rail project will stretch approximately 110.3km and involve construction of the north-south and the east-west corridors. The project is being implemented by the provincial government Daerah Khusus Ibukota (DKI) Jakarta through the land transportation authority PT Mass Rapid Transit Jakarta (PT MRT Jakarta), who will also be the operator of the system.
Progress on the first-phase of the Jakarta Mass Rapid Transit (the South - North Corridor, the 16 km-long of the Lebak Bulus - HI Roundabout route), reached 91 percent at the end of February 2018, on schedule for completion in December 2018 and targeted to become operational in March 2019.
+ OUTCOMES AND IMPACTS
MRT Jakarta will accommodate 1,950 passengers per headway therefore it is expected able to break down the traffic jam. Phase one of the north-south corridor will have 13 stations, seven of which will be elevated and six will be underground. Elevated stations will be constructed at Lebak Bulus, Fatmawati, Cipete Raya, Haji Nawi, Blok A, Blok M and Sisingamangaraja. Underground stations will be constructed at Bund.Senayan, Istora, Benhil, Setiabudi, Dukuh Atas, Bundaran HI, Kebon Sirih, Harmoni, Glodock, Kota and Kampung Bandan. The north-south corridor will have six interchange stations along the 23.3km-long route. Stations that will serve as interchanges include Lebak Bulus, Blok M, Dukuh Atas , Kebon Sirih, Kota and Kampung Bandan. Kebon Sirih will also serve as an interchange station for the east-west corridor. The 15.2km route will be commuted in 30 minutes with stations placed at distance between 0.5km and 2km. Trains will operate at headway of five minutes with a target to provide transportation services to 412,700 people after the first three years of operation for Phase I and 629,900 people for Phase II in 2037.
The second-phase construction of the Jakarta Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) project for the South - North Corridor, with route from Hotel Indonesia (HI) Roundabout to Kampung Bandan, is targeted to commence in October 2018. According to President Director of PT MRT Jakarta, William Sabandar, his company is seeking to speed up the Phase II development process of the South - North Corridor. The government plans to build two corridors of the Jakarta MRT, namely the South - North Corridor, which connects Jakarta, and the East - West Corridor along Cikarang (Bekasi) - Balaraja (Banten). Phase II will have eight underground stations.
+ REPLICABILITY AND SCALABILITY
Similar mass public transit development project, which is LRT, being developed in Palembang City, capital of South Sumatera Province, whereas Palembang and Jakarta will be the host of the 2018 Asian Games. The Asian Games sparked infrastructure development to meet the demand of visitors coming to Palembang to celebrate the event. However, the project has not been included in the Palembang city 2013-2018 development mission.
+ BUDGET AMOUNT
Estimated to cost $1.78 billion, including electrical and mechanical systems and the cost of rolling stock, the project is being funded by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) to the tune of $1.49 billion while the national and city governments will contribute the remaining amount in proportion of 42% and 58% respectively. As of April 2011, DKI Jakarta had secured 42% of the JICA loan amount that was granted to the provincial government of DKI Jakarta.