+ BACKGROUND, CHALLENGES AND OBJECTIVES
With success of Doi Moi* initiative, Vietnam is urbanizing very quickly. Da Nang, the fourth biggest city in Vietnam, is also growing fast. Da Nang’s population increased by 2.5% ~ 3% annually for last decade. In 2011, population of Da nang was 770,000, but in 2018, the population is more than a million. Da Nang’s infrastructure could not support the population. Infrastructures, such as transportation system, had to be reformed in order to meet citizens’ needs.
Da Nang Sustainable City Development Project aims to help Da Nang to become a more sustainable city that benefits all citizens by improving urban environment and increasing urban mobility in a clean, safe, inclusive, and energy efficient manner. In detail, the plan has five components: Drainage and Wastewater Improvement, Bus Rapid Transit Development, Urban Strategic Roads, Technical Assistance and Capacity Building, and Transferred Activities of Da Nang Priority Infrastructure Investment Project.
Da Nang and The World Bank Partnership for Sustainable Urban Development project First-time private sector participation in sludge removal and treatmentDa Nang wastewater management strategy & connectivity improvement First city in Vietnam with municipal wastewater collection and treatment system, and integrated public transport system
Image Source: http://pubdocs.worldbank.org/en/252661510204548798/Da-Nang-WB-Partnership-Infographic-EN.pdf
Over the last two decades, under The World Bank partnership, Da Nang has developed as the greenest city in Vietnam.* Da Nang has undergone 3-step of innovative revolution and taken sustainable approaches of urban development. The Three Cities Sanitation Project was then followed by the Da Nang Priority Infrastructure Investment Project (PIIP) in 2008-2013 and Da Nang sustainable City Development Project (SCDP).
Satellite photographs of Da Nang 1977 and 2013
1999-2008: Three Cities Sanitation Project
About the Partnership with Da Nang and the Word Bank
Over the last two decades, under the World Bank partnership Da Nang has developed as the sustainable city.
1999-2008: Three Cities Sanitation Project
-In 1999, Da Nang took its first action with the World Bank to develop the city. Within this period, Da Nang experienced huge changes in basic infrastructure. The project aimed to sustain improvements to public health and increase economic development in three cities, Haiphong, Quang Ninh Province, and Da Nang.
Considering the fact that the city of Da Nang is in a tropical monsoon zone with 2.5 millimeters of rainfall per year, reducing the incidence of flooding is directly related to the safety and public health of the inhabitants. By upgrading the urban environment and developing more efficient and financially sustainable drainage companies, Da Nang has increased public health, safety, and has improved lacking infrastructure.
The project was a huge success, and many benefits were gained as a result. The three cities, including Da Nang, have successfully improved the drainage, sewerage and solid waste management throughout the city and have also provided institutional support. Over 738,000 citizens have benefited from the improved reliable drainage and sewage systems, solid waste management and on-plot sanitation. Reducing the vulnerability to flooding and other environmental risks, including diseases, eventually upgraded the quality of life in Da Nang. This first project provided the foundation for the two following projects with the World Bank.
2008 - 2013: Priority Infrastructure Investment Project (PIIP)
- Within this period of time, Da Nang embarked on its first multi-sectoral urban development plan with the World Bank partnership. The Priority Infrastructure Investment Project (PIIP) was based on the rationale of rapid urban economic growth and poor environmental sanitation that impacts on the sustainability of growth. The city government and the World Bank gazed at the challenges: (i) ensuring productive employment and basic services for new residents; (ii); dealing with the legacy of under-investment in the 70s, 80s and 90s; (iii) dealing with the legacy of under-investment in the 70s, 80s and 90s; and (iv) better operationalization of industrial zones and improvement in FDI.
Upon the previous project of Comprehensive Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy (CPRGS) the World Bank and the city government designed the PIIP to translate and implement CPRGS’s goal at the local level. Hence the PIIP project planned to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainability of municipal services under the control of Da Nang city through upgrading urban infrastructures. In detail, the component includes (i) urban upgrading of low-income areas, construction of resettlement sites, and micro-finance for home improvement; (ii) environmental infrastructure improvement; (iii) new roads and bridges linking peri-urban regions to the city center; and (iv) capacity building and technical assistance.
As the result of the PIIP, the World Bank rated it was moderately satisfactory, the risk to development outcome was moderate, the Bank performance was satisfactory, and the Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. Some lessons learned included: an integrated multi-sectoral approach is the way forward despite design and implementation challenges.
The project successfully provided access to essential services, including on-plot piped water supply, drainage, and wastewater collection facilities and accessibility to all-season roads. With this successful results, PIIP scaled up to the Da Nang Sustainable City Development Project (SCDP) in 2013.
Danang voted as Vietnam's greenest city (July 13, 2018), DTi News. Retrieved from http://dtinews.vn/en/news/021/57376/danang-voted-as-vietnam-s-greenest-city.html
Doi Moi: Vietnam’s economic reformation policy. Satellite Photographs of Da Nang 1977 and 2013
*Rapid Planning, 2016. DaNang 1977 and DaNang 2013;. ©Rapid Planning. http://rapid-planning.net/sites/default/files/DaNag_1977_2013_red.jpg
+ ACTIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION
SCDP is in progress for more than 5 years since 2013, and it consists of numbers of other projects as sub-plan. Sub-plans includes expanding drainage, upgrading Hoa Xuan wastewater treatment plant constructing Lien Chieu wastewater treatment plant, Nguyen Tat Thanh extension was opened to traffic in late March 2018, the city officials are working on upgrading Hoa Phuoc-Hoa Khuong roads. And integrating BRT system is in progress as well, ridership on the five new urban bus services established through the BRT development has increased by 16% per month in 2017.
Compared to the previous project, the SCDP project mainly focused on urban development, specifically urban transport and sanitation of the neighbors. The project’s priority is to provide better access of improved drainage, wastewater collection and treatment services, the arterial road network, and public transport.SCDP : Improve Drainage and Wastewater systems
Waste water from the rainwater drainage system run to beaches in Danang City
Image Source: https://english.vietnamnet.vn/fms/environment/183184/danang-beaches-covered-in-30-tonnes-of-rubbish.html
Under its tropical monsoon climate, on average, the city receives 2.5 millimeters of rainfall per year. Hence pursuing sustainable and solid drainage and wastewater system directly associated with residents’ life excellence and well-being. According to the planning of Da Nang city, the project includes followings; (i)Upgrade and expand rain water drainage systems; (ii) Upgrade and expand the wastewater drainage system; (iii) Renovate boundary of lakes; (iv) Construct and renovate wastewater treatment station; (v) Household Connection Program; and (vi) Procurement of equipment.SCDP : Pilot Bus System (BRT)
Compared to the population density of Da Nang city, it has extremely small public transport systems. The number of buses available for services in Da Nang’s urban area is only about 40, and buses arrives every 20-30 minutes. Under the condition, people are dependent almost highly on motorcycles. Prevalent use of motorcycles and private vehicles as means of transport being an obstacle to city become sustainable and reach the master plan of 2025: Greenest City. Therefore, Da Nang city government put their best commitment to provide an integrated public transport system, comprised of local bus services and Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) project. By increasing number of available services, the City Government expect to cover all major arterial corridors by 2025. To provide and increase ease of access the Da Nang boarded on projects including followings; (i) Fully connected with existing infrastructures; (ii) Construction on route network; (iii) Operational plans and bus services on all routes; (iv) Bus as major means of public transport; (v) Ticket system and price subsidy policy; (vi) Infrastructure for the Rapid Bus System (Depot, Top-Bottom, R & R transit points, terminal / stop for BRT bus systems, interchange on BRT #1, Bridge over walk, Road surface); (vii) Intelligent Transportation Systems for Buses (ITS system); and (viii) Operational model. Public infrastructure investments are one of the main tools local authorities can use to encourage compact development (including development around transit hubs), encourage alternative modes of transportation (walking, biking, public transportation), and decrease local energy inputs (transportation is one of the most energy-intensive sectors).
SCDP : Strategic Urban Transport Routes
Building a connection between arterial cities is vital. (why) As a part of the components 3: Strategic Urban Transport Routes, Hoa Phuoc – Hoa Khuong route planned to be constructed. The route start from southern ring road of Da Nang city to Hoa Phuoc Commune, with its toal length of **8.129,91m???*. Currently working on Quan Gian Bridge, The North-South railway bridge, Western Pure Land Bridge and Yen River Bridge. As a second part of the plan, in Hoa Lien commune, Hoa Vang district, extended Nguyen Tat Thanh project is under construction. Each major intersection shall be equipped with at least one technical reinforced concrete culvert section, and complete longitudinal sluice. The routes will have a lighting system to secure the safety and convenience; and will have signboards, orchids and road markers on the road signaling system. Construction of technical infrastructure of resettlement areas are followings: North City Ring Road North; Resettlement Area 1 DT 605; Hoa Phong – Hoa Phu Resettlement Area and access road to the area; Hoa Lien commune area; and Khe Can Resettlement area.
SCDP : Capacity building and support for project implementation
In 2012, Da Nang city government created the Da Nang Traffic Light and Public Transport Management Center (DATRAMAC) within the City’s Department of Transport. Through the capacity building Da Nang provides technical assistance to DATRAMAC and Da Nang Waste Water Treatment and Sewerage Company. It is a training center, contribute to the improvement of knowledge and skills and experiences for project related fields. It supports the implementation of the projects and procure equipment, and management of urban transport planning.
SCDP : Activities are transferred from Da Nang priority Infrastructure project
Da Nang constructed fundamental base with previous PIIP project to move furthered on SCDP project. The fifth components intended to cover the works implemented within the PIIP. Work items include followings: Construction of a road to link Da Nang to Hoa Phuoc and Da Nang to Hoa Khuong; Construct Hoa Xuan Water Supply Station (capacity 20,000 m3/day); Upgrading Son Tra Co-op station; Construction of Phu Loc river bridge; Supervision safety and services.
Da Nang's BRT bus route map, *
Da Nang BRT official Facebook.2017. https://vi-vn.facebook.com/DanangBRTnews/posts/1776984872612439
If there is no source of image the Image retrieved from following source: https://english.vietnamnet.vn/fms/environment/183184/danang-beaches-covered-in-30-tonnes-of-rubbish.html
+ OUTCOMES AND IMPACTS
Image Source: http://pubdocs.worldbank.org/en/176561510204544735/Da-Nang-WB-Partnership-4-Pages-EN.pdf
SCDP has achieved number of success.
Drainage and Wastewater Improvement successfully separate sewer from house, while connects wastewater collection and treatment system between houses in the coastal tourism area of My An-My Khe. (US$143.60 million) Also, percentage of urban population provided with clean water by centralized water supply system 97%.Bus Rapid Transit Development plan implemented more convenient public transport system. Newly established integrated fare collection system along with the Intelligent Transport System (ITS) for public transport, and BRT system improved connectivity between Da Nang and other cities, and residents accessibility to public transport. (US$70.22 million) In September 2012, the People’s Council approved a plan for 11 bus routes and 160 buses upon the pilot BRT lines.
World Bank has given several positive impacts, according to statistics of the World Bank by May 2018, they include Transportation, flood protection and community capacity building. As transportation compared to 2013, the number of passengers using the bus has doubled to 44,000 in 2017. Nguyen Tat Thanh extension road, which is 3.4km long, was opened to public by March 2018, reducing travel time by half. In terms of water drainage system, it secured its safety against to flood damage. Other than flood protection, newly implemented drainages can cover 283 hectare, and more are under construction. Regarding Community Capacity Building and program, percentage of target citizens who participated in capacity building consultation program is 67%.
+ REPLICABILITY AND SCALABILITY
Regardless challenges Da Nang faced, the city successfully evolves into more sustainable and livable city. Rapid urbanization and increase of population almost always associated with issues which could have significant impact on municipal infrastructure. Hence the Da Nang’s projects under the partnership with World Bank would give inspiration to other cities in midst of rapid growing without sustainability. Having said that, however, the location of the Da Nang city needed to be considered as it was significant to set priorities among constructing infrastructures in municipal.
+ BUDGET AMOUNT
Total cost is USD 358.32 million, among total expenditure, the World Bank loaned USD 275.02 million. Details are below
1. Drainage and Wastewater Improvement - Wastewater Collection and Treatment: development of a separate sewer/house connection system in the coastal tourism area of My An - My Khe:(USD143.60 million)
2. Bus Rapid Transit Development - establishment of an integrated fare collection and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) for public transport, including the BRT system.(USD $70.22 Million)
3. Urban Strategic Roads - and the improvement of DH2 (Hoa Nhon - Hoa Son) Road.(USD 94.70 Million)
4. Technical Assistance and Capacity Building:(USD 19.20 Million)
5. Transferred activities from Da Nang Priority Infrastructure Investment Project:(USD 30.60 Million)